Coupling Neighboring Microgrids for Overload Management Based on Dynamic Multicriteria Decision-Making

Coupling Neighboring Microgrids for Overload Management Based on Dynamic Multicriteria Decision-Making

Coupling Neighboring Microgrids for Overload Management Based on Dynamic Multicriteria Decision-Making

Abstract:

A microgrid (MG) is expected to supply its local loads independently; however, due to intermittency of wind and solar-based energy resources as well as the load uncertainty, it is probable that the MG experiences power deficiency (overloading). This problem can be mitigated by coupling the overloaded MG to another neighboring MG that has surplus power. Considering a distribution network composed of several islanded MGs, defining the suitable MGs (alternative) to be coupled with the overloaded MG is a challenge. An MG overload management technique is developed in this paper, which first identifies the overloaded MG(s) and then selects the most suitable alternative. The alternative selection is based on different criteria, such as available surplus power, reliability, supply security, power loss, electricity cost, and CO2 emissions in the alternative MGs. Moreover, the frequency and voltage deviation in the system of coupled MGs are considered in the selection. A dynamic multicriteria decision-making algorithm is developed for this purpose. To contemplate the uncertainties in the considered distribution network, a cloud theory-based probabilistic analysis is deployed as the research framework and the performance of the developed technique is evaluated in MATLAB.
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid ( Volume: 8, Issue: 2, March 2017 )
Date of Publication: 29 September 2015
INSPEC Accession Number: 16690053
Publisher: IEEE

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The Analysis and Development of a Power Flow-Based Controller for Microgrid Systems

The Analysis and Development of a Power Flow-Based Controller for Microgrid Systems

The Analysis and Development of a Power Flow-Based Controller for Microgrid Systems

Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis, development, and implementation of a new controller for microgrid systems. The developed controller is structured to produce command values for the active and reactive powers ( PC and QC ), and dq-axis voltage components ( vdC and vqC) for each bus in the microgrid system at hand. Values for PC,QC,vdC, and vqC are obtained using a power flow formulated in the dq-axis frame. The dq-axis power flow (DQPF) produces values for PC,QC,vdC , and vqC that can meet load demands, respond to variations in power generation within the microgrid, and accommodate the mode of operating the microgrid (interconnected or standalone), while maintaining the voltage and frequency stability. The DQPF-based controller is implemented for performance evaluation using a five-bus microgrid system operated under various conditions, including changes in power generation, step changes in load demands, and changes in mode of operation. Test results demonstrate that the DQPF-based controller can offer simple implementation, accurate and fast responses, and negligible sensitivity to the mode of microgrid operation.
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications ( Volume: 53, Issue: 2, March-April 2017 )
Date of Publication: 08 November 2016
Publisher: IEEE

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Operational Planning of Electric Vehicles for Balancing Wind Power and Load Fluctuations in a Microgrid

Operational Planning of Electric Vehicles for Balancing Wind Power and Load Fluctuations in a Microgrid

Operational Planning of Electric Vehicles for Balancing Wind Power and Load Fluctuations in a Microgrid

Abstract:

The intermittency of renewable energy poses challenges on the reliable and economical operations of microgrids. This paper considers a grid-connected microgrid model which consists of a logistics distribution system, where electric vehicles (EVs) depart from the depot, deliver the goods to multiple demand loads, and then, return to the depot. Based on this, this paper studies the coordinated dispatch strategies of EVs to smooth renewable energy and load fluctuations of the microgrid while ensuring the quality of logistics services. A microgrid operation model is proposed to optimize the driving routes, fast-charging time, and regular-charging/discharging strategies of EVs. Specifically, the objective is to minimize the overall operation cost of the microgrid while satisfying the requirements of the logistics distribution tasks. A self-adaptively imperialist competitive algorithm is proposed to solve the model. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy ( Volume: 8, Issue: 2, April 2017 )
Date of Publication: 27 September 2016
Publisher: IEEE


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Superimposed Adaptive Sequence Current Based Microgrid Protection: A New Technique

Superimposed Adaptive Sequence Current Based Microgrid Protection: A New Technique

Superimposed Adaptive Sequence Current Based Microgrid Protection: A New Technique

Abstract:

In this paper, an adaptive directional overcurrent relaying technique based on the positive-sequence (PSQ) and negative-sequence (NSQ) superimposed currents is proposed for microgrid protection. Due to the change in mode of operation of microgrid, the level and direction of prefault current are altered. On occurrence of a fault in any line section of the microgrid, coordination between the primary and backup overcurrent relays is lost due to variations in level and direction of fault current. With inception of faults, the current contributed by the inverter-based distributed energy resource is in the range of 2 p.u. To solve protection coordination issue, this paper presents an adaptive overcurrent relay settings using PSQ and NSQ superimposed currents those are contributed during fault conditions. Further, the direction of the fault is obtained using the new phase change between prefault and superimposed sequence fault currents. The proposed technique is implemented on a dSPACE processor board, which is connected to a real-time digital simulator to carry out the hardware-in-the-loop test. Extensive simulation and hardware results obtained for several microgrid operating modes indicate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. This proposed approach is independent of the voltage information.
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery ( Volume: 32, Issue: 2, April 2017 )
Date of Publication: 29 August 2016
Publisher: IEEE

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Repetitive Controller for VSIs in Droop-Based AC-Microgrid

Repetitive Controller for VSIs in Droop-Based AC-Microgrid

Repetitive Controller for VSIs in Droop-Based AC-Microgrid

Abstract:

A major requirement of ac-microgrid is to keep on feeding its connected load at regulated voltage and frequency, which is difficult to achieve especially in inverter-based microgrid. In modern distribution system, most of the loads are nonlinear in nature and draw harmonic current. The variable load with the nonlinear characteristics may distort the output voltage and degrade the power quality. In order to mitigate the negative impact of these disturbances on the output voltage, a novel repetitive controller (RC) has been proposed. A mixed-sensitivity-based approach is used here to design the RC and the comparison of performance with nonlinear load is shown with a conventional proportional plus integral regulator. The overall microgrid system is designed and simulated with the help of various toolboxes available in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Furthermore, a scaled hardware prototype of microgrid consisting of two voltage source inverter is developed and controlled using RC in real time with the help of field programmable gate array (FPGA).
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics ( Volume: 32, Issue: 8, Aug. 2017 )
Date of Publication: 20 October 2016
Publisher: IEEE

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Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase-Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase-Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase-Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic (PV)-based, hybrid single/three-phase-islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units, and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV and battery units, and power flow among different phases is performed automatically through three-phase units. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them. To cover all possible conditions of the microgrid, the operation of each unit is divided into five states in single-phase units and seven states in three-phase units and modified active power-frequency droop functions are used according to operating states. The frequency level is used as trigger for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisting of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units.
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics ( Volume: 32, Issue: 8, Aug. 2017 )
Date of Publication: 21 October 2016
Publisher: IEEE

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Nonlinear Control of a DC MicroGrid for the Integration of Photovoltaic Panels

Nonlinear Control of a DC MicroGrid for the Integration of Photovoltaic Panels

Nonlinear Control of a DC MicroGrid for the Integration of Photovoltaic Panels

Abstract:

New connection constraints for the power network (grid codes) require more flexible and reliable systems, with robust solutions to cope with uncertainties and intermittence from renewable energy sources (renewables), such as photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The interconnection of such renewables with storage systems through a direct current (DC) MicroGrid can fulfill these requirements. A “Plug and Play” approach based on the “System of Systems” philosophy using distributed control methodologies is developed in this paper. This approach allows to interconnect a number of elements to a DC MicroGrid as power sources, such as PV arrays, storage systems in different time scales, such as batteries and supercapacitors, and loads, such as electric vehicles and the main ac grid. The proposed scheme can easily be scalable to a much larger number of elements.
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering ( Volume: 14, Issue: 2, April 2017 )
Date of Publication: 17 March 2017
Publisher: IEEE


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