ROBUST REFERENCE-WATERMARKING SCHEME USING WAVELET PACKET TRANSFORM AND BIDIAGONAL-SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

ROBUST REFERENCE-WATERMARKING SCHEME USING WAVELET PACKET TRANSFORM AND BIDIAGONAL-SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

ROBUST REFERENCE-WATERMARKING SCHEME USING WAVELET PACKET TRANSFORM AND BIDIAGONAL-SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

Abstract

This paper presents a new robust reference watermarking scheme based on wavelet packet transform (WPT) and bidiagonal singular value decomposition (bSVD) for copy-
right protection and authenticity. A small gray scale logo is used as watermark instead of randomly generated Gaussian noise type watermark. A reference watermark is generated
by original watermark and the process of embedding is done in wavelet packet domain by modifying the bidiagonal singular values. For the robustness and imperceptibly, water-mark is embedded in the selected sub-bands, which are selected by taking into account the variance of the sub-bands, which serves as a measure of the watermark magnitude that could be imperceptibly embedded in each block. For this purpose, the variance is calculated in a small moving square window of size Sp × Sp (typically 3 × 3 or 5 × 5 window) centered at the pixel. A reliable watermark extraction is developed, in which the watermark bidiagonal singular values are extracted by considering the distortion caused by the attacks in neighboring bidiagonal singular values. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand a variety of attacks and the superiority of the proposed method is carried out by the comparison which is made by us with the existing methods.

 

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Robust Wide Baseline Stereo from Maximally Stable Extremal Regions

Robust Wide Baseline Stereo from Maximally Stable Extremal Regions

Robust Wide Baseline Stereo from Maximally Stable Extremal Regions

 

Abstract

The wide-baseline stereo problem, i.e. the problem of establishing correspondences between a pair of images taken from different viewpoints is studied. A new set of image elements that are put into correspondence, the so called extremal regions, is introduced. Extremal regions possess highly desirable properties: the set is closed under 1. continuous (and thus projective) transformation of image coordinates and 2. monotonic transformation of image intensities. An efficient (near linear complexity) and practically fast detection algorithm (near frame rate) is presented for an affinely invariant stable subset of extremal regions, the maximally stable extremal regions (MSER). A new robust similarity measure for establishing tentative correspondences is proposed. The robustness ensures that invariants from multiple measurement regions (regions obtained by invariant constructions from extremal regions), some that are significantly larger (and hence discriminative) than the MSERs, may be used to establish tentative correspondences. The high utility of MSERs, multiple measurement regions and the robust metric is demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on image pairs from both indoor and outdoor scenes. Significant change of scale (3.5×), illumination conditions, out-of-plane rotation, occlusion , locally anisotropic scale change and 3D translation of the viewpoint are all present in the test problems. Good estimates of epipolar geometry (average distance from corresponding points to the epipolar line below 0.09 of the inter-pixel distance) are obtained.

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A Universal Image Quality Index

A Universal Image Quality Index

A Universal Image Quality Index

Abstract—

We propose a new universal objective image quality index, which is easy to calculate and applicable to various image processing applications. Instead of using traditional error sum-
mation methods, the proposed index is designed by modeling any image distortion as a combination of three factors: loss of correlation, luminance distortion, and contrast distortion. Although the new index is mathematically defined and no human visual system model is explicitly employed, our experiments on various image distortion types indicate that it performs significantly better than the widely used distortion metric mean implementation of the algorithm.Image signals are generally nonstationary while image quality is often also space variant, although in practice it is usually desired to evaluate an entire image using a single overall quality value. Therefore, it is more appropriate to measure
statistical features locally and then combine them together.

 

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Visual Cryptography

Visual Cryptography

Visual Cryptography

 

Abstract.

In this paper we consider a new type of cryptographic scheme, which can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations. The scheme is perfectly secure and very easy to implement. We extend it into a visual variant of the k out of n secret shazing problem, in which a dealer provides a transparency to each one of the n users; any k of them ca~ see the image by stacking their trazasparencies, but any k – 1 of them gain no information about it.

 

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A Dual Interpretation for Direct Binary Search and Its Implications for Tone Reproduction and Texture Quality

A Dual Interpretation for Direct Binary Search and Its Implications for Tone Reproduction and Texture Quality

A Dual Interpretation for Direct Binary Search and Its Implications for Tone Reproduction and Texture Quality

 

Abstract—

The direct binary search (DBS) algorithm employs a search heuristic to minimize the mean-squared perceptually filtered error between the halftone and continuous-tone original images. Based on an efficient method for evaluating the effect on mean squared error of trial changes to the halftone image, we show that DBS also minimizes in a pointwise sense the absolute error under the same visual model, but at twice the viewing distance associated with the mean-squared error metric. This dual interpretation sheds light on the convergence proper- ties of the algorithm, and clearly explains the tone bias that has long been observed with halftoning algorithms of this type. It also demonstrates how tone bias and texture quality are linked via the scale parameter, the product of printer resolution and viewing distance. Finally, we show how the tone bias can be eliminated btone-correcting the continuous-tone image prior to halftoning it.Typically, these methods require that the entire continuous-tone and halftone images be accessed multiple times.

 

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Impact of HVS Models on Model-Based Halftoning

Impact of HVS Models on Model-Based Halftoning

Impact of HVS Models on Model-Based Halftoning

 

 

Abstract—

A model for the human visual system (HVS) is an important component of many halftoning algorithms. Using the iterative direct binary search (DBS) algorithm, we compare the
halftone texture quality provided by four different HVS models that have been reported in the literature. Choosing one HVS model as the best for DBS, we then develop an approximation to that model which significantly improves computational performance while minimally increasing the complexity of the code. By varying the parameters of this model, we find that it is possible to tune it to the gray level being rendered, and to thus yield superior halftone quality across the tone scale. We then develop a dual-metric DBS
algorithm that effectively provides a tone-dependent HVS model without a large increase in computational complexity.

 

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HALFTONE VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY VIA DIRECT BINARY SEARCH

HALFTONE VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY VIA DIRECT BINARY SEARCH

HALFTONE VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY VIA DIRECT BINARY SEARCH

 

ABSTRACT

This paper considers the problem of encoding a secret binary image SI into n shares of meaningful halftone images within the scheme of visual cryptography (VC). Secret pixels en-
coded into shares introduce noise to the halftone images. We extend our previous work on halftone visual cryptography [1] and propose a new method that can encode the secret pixels into the shares via the direct binary search (DBS) halftoning method. The perceptual errors between the halftone shares and the continuous-tone images are minimized with respect to a human visual system (HVS) model [2]. The secret image can be clearly decoded without showing any interference with the share images. The security of our method is guaranteed by the properties of VC. Simulation results show that our proposed method can improve significantly the halftone image quality for the encoded shares compared with previous algorithms.

 

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Color Extended Visual Cryptography Using Error Diffusion

Color Extended Visual Cryptography Using Error Diffusion

Color Extended Visual Cryptography Using Error Diffusion

 

Abstract—

Color visual cryptography (VC) encrypts a color secret message into color halftone image shares. Previous methods in the literature show good results for black and white
or gray scale VC schemes, however, they are not sufficient to be applied directly to color shares due to different color structures. Some methods for color visual cryptography are not satisfactory in terms of producing either meaningless shares or meaningful shares with low visual quality, leading to suspicion of encryption. This paper introduces the concept of visual information pixel (VIP) synchronization and error diffusion to attain a color visual cryptography encryption method that produces meaningful color shares with high visual quality. VIP synchronization retains the positions of pixels carrying visual information of original images throughout the color channels and error diffusion generates shares
pleasant to human eyes. Comparisons with previous approaches show the superior performance of the new method.

 

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Halftoning via Direct Binary Search Using Analytical and Stochastic Printer Models

Halftoning via Direct Binary Search Using Analytical and Stochastic Printer Models

Halftoning via Direct Binary Search Using Analytical and Stochastic Printer Models

 

 

Abstract—

We incorporate models for printer dot interactions within the iterative direct binary search halftoning algorithm. Monochrome electro-photographic printers are considered. Both
analytical and stochastic models are studied. In the analytical model it is assumed that the printer can generate a circular spot with constant absorptance at each printer addressable location, whereas the stochastic model is based on microscopic absorptance and variance measurements. We also present an efficient strategy for evaluating the change in computational cost as the search progresses. With our scheme, updating the change in error only involves a few fetches from two look-up-tables and some scalar multiplications and additions. Experimental results are provided that show that DBS with an appropriate model for printer dot interactions yields enhanced detail rendition, and improved tonal gradation in shadow areas.

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A Blind and Self-Adaptive Digital Watermarking Based on Wavelet-packet Decomposition

A Blind and Self-Adaptive Digital Watermarking Based on Wavelet-packet Decomposition

A Blind and Self-Adaptive Digital Watermarking Based on Wavelet-packet Decomposition

 

Abstract

In this paper, a novel blind digital watermarking algorithm using wavelet-packet decomposition is proposed. Firstly, the original image is transformed into frequency domain with wavelet-packet decomposition by using a key that decides which direction will be further transformed, so that the sub bands where watermark is embedded are determined;
Secondly, the binary watermark image with copyright information is scrambled with a pseudo-random sequence generated by another key; According to the sub bands’ own characteristics, three thresholds are calculated ,then the watermark is embedded to the selected sub bands coefficients by using different scale thresholds depending on the level decomposition. In addition, in the watermark image extraction process, the original image is not needed. The locations where watermark information are embedded are found by
using one key; and three thresholds are generated, then the watermark information are withdrawn; Finally, the watermarking image is reconstructed by using another key. The experiments’ results have shown that the image embedded watermark is invisible to human eyes and very robust to various attacks.

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