Differential current-based fault protection with adaptive threshold for multiple PV-based DC microgrid

Differential current-based fault protection with adaptive threshold for multiple PV-based DC microgrid

Differential current-based fault protection with adaptive threshold for multiple PV-based DC microgrid

 

Abstract:

A new differential current-based fast fault detection and accurate fault distance calculation is proposed for photovoltaic (PV)-based DC microgrid. A multiterminal direct current (MTDC) distribution network is studied as an adequate solution for present low-voltage utility grid scenario, where local distributed generators (DGs) are incorporated primarily by
power electronics based DC–DC converters, DC–AC voltage-source converters (VSCs). PV and diesel generator (as auxiliary source) are considered for cascaded common DC bus, and AC utility bus integration is achieved by VSC unit for the proposed, MTDC network. DC microgrid protection is quite significant research focus due to the absence of well-defined standards. Poleto-pole, pole-to-ground, PV-side DC series and ground arc faults are basically considered as DC distribution network hazards. A discrete model differential current solution is considered to detect, classify and locate the faults by modified cumulative sum average approach. A comprehensive case study is presented with different DC loadings, to deliberate effectiveness of the proposed protection scheme in terms of percentage error and trip time (Ts). The result verification is conducted in MATLAB
environment as well as TMS320C6713 digital signal processor-based test bench with the proposed multiple DGs based DC microgrid.A new differential current-based fast detection and accurate fault location is proposed in this paper. The fault detection thresholds for various fault resistance are volatile in nature when primary distributed generators (DGs) are renewable.

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Robust optimisation-based microgrid scheduling with islanding constraints

Robust optimisation-based microgrid scheduling with islanding constraints

Robust optimisation-based microgrid scheduling with islanding constraints

 

Abstract:

This study proposes a robust optimisation-based optimal scheduling model for microgrid operation considering constraints of islanding capability. The objective is to minimise the total operation cost, including generation cost and spinning reserve cost of local resources as well as purchasing cost of energy from the main grid. To ensure the resiliency of a microgrid and improve the reliability of the local electricity supply, the microgrid is required to maintain enough spinning reserve (both up and down) to meet local demand and accommodate local renewable generation when the supply of power from the main grid is interrupted suddenly, i.e. microgrid transitions from grid-connected into islanded mode. Prevailing operational uncertainties in renewable energy resources and load are considered and captured using a robust optimisation method. With proper robust
level, the solution of the proposed scheduling model ensures successful islanding of the microgrid with minimum load curtailment and guarantees robustness against all possible realisations of the modelled operational uncertainties. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator and a battery demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheduling model.

 

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Decentralized Reactive Power Sharing and Frequency Restoration in Islanded Microgrid

Decentralized Reactive Power Sharing and Frequency Restoration in Islanded Microgrid

Decentralized Reactive Power Sharing and Frequency Restoration in Islanded Microgrid

 

Abstract—

P-f and Q-V droop methods are the most common decentralized control methods in islanded microgrid. Although with the P-f droop method an accurate active power sharing can be achieved among distributed energy resources (DERs), by Q-V droop, the reactive power sharing among DERs often deteriorates due to its highly dependence on the power line impedances and the local load. Variation of frequency and voltage by load changes is another challenge in droop control method. In this paper a new autonomous
control method is proposed to share reactive power among DERs accurately and restore frequency of a microgrid. The proposed method does not require any communication link and so maintains reliability and simplicity of network. The synchronizing among DERs is obtained by load change detection which is accomplished by wavelet transform. The method operation principle is explained and analyzed. Simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Predictive Analysis of Microgrid Reliability Using a Probabilistic Model of Protection System Operation

Predictive Analysis of Microgrid Reliability Using a Probabilistic Model of Protection System Operation

Predictive Analysis of Microgrid Reliability Using a Probabilistic Model of Protection System Operation

 

Abstract—

Protection continues to be an important factor in the development of microgrids. In this paper, an evaluation strategy is proposed to quantify the effects of deficient protection scheme on reliability indices in a microgrid. In particular, the evaluation strategy takes into account the trigger probability of protective actions under abnormal operating conditions, such as warranted trips, rejections and malfunctions. This trigger probability in per unit time is defined as dynamic outage rate to distinguish static utage rate (i.e., random outage rate). A probabilistic model is constructed by simulating system operating conditions to determine the trigger probability. The model can be characterized
by the previously proposed virtual setting value, which can be determined by a predictive analysis to minimize the probability of incorrect protective actions under different operating conditions. With the proposed evaluation strategy, the significance of the impacts of the protection system, in terms of dynamic outage rate and static outage rate, on the operational reliability are demonstrated with a 400 V microgrid system.

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Hybrid Islanding Detection in Microgrid with Multiple Connection Points to Smart Grids using Fuzzy-Neural Network

Hybrid Islanding Detection in Microgrid with Multiple Connection Points to Smart Grids using Fuzzy-Neural Network

Hybrid Islanding Detection in Microgrid with Multiple Connection Points to Smart Grids using Fuzzy-Neural Network

 

Abstract—

This paper presents a new hybrid islanding detection approach for microgrids (MGs) with multiple connection points to smart grids (SGs) which is based on the
probability of islanding (PoI) calculated at the SG side and sent to the central control for microgrid (CCMG). The PoI values are determined using a combination of passive, active and communication islanding detection approaches based on the utility signals measured at the SGs sides which are processed by discrete wavelet transform using an artificial neural network (ANN). If PoIANN is larger than the threshold value (indicating high possibility of islanding) then a more accurate approach based on fuzzy network is used to recompute it (PoIFUZZY) where the fuzzy parameters are determined by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In the proposed technique, an active
islanding is only performed when PoI is high and the amplitudes of the disturb signals are proportional to PoIFUZZY. Furthermore, if the PoI is not correctly received by CCMG, two auxiliary tests will be performed in the MG side to detect islanding. These tests include an intentional passive islanding detection in a short preset time and an active islanding detection with disturb signals proportional to the calculated PoI. Detailed simulations are performed and analyzed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method.

 

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An Islanding Detection Method by Using Frequency Positive Feedback Based on FLL for Single-Phase Microgrid

An Islanding Detection Method by Using Frequency Positive Feedback Based on FLL for Single-Phase Microgrid

An Islanding Detection Method by Using Frequency Positive Feedback Based on FLL for Single-Phase Microgrid

 

Abstract—

An active islanding detection method based on frequency-locked loop (FLL) for constant power controlled inverter in single-phase microgrid is proposed. This method
generates a phase shift comparing the instantaneous frequency obtained from FLL unit with the nominal frequency to modify the reference phase angle. An initial low frequency variable triangular disturbance is added to the phase shift in order to reduce non-detection zone and accelerate the detection process especially in the case of power matching. With the modified phase angle, the frequency at point of common coupling will be drifted away from the nominal frequency until exceeding the threshold because of the frequency positive feedback after islanding. Besides, FLL is introduced to this method in order to lock frequency quickly considering that the frequency is time-varying during the islanding
detection process. Simulation and experiment have been done to evaluate this method.

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Multiagent-Based Optimal Microgrid Control Using Fully Distributed Diffusion Strategy

Multiagent-Based Optimal Microgrid Control Using Fully Distributed Diffusion Strategy

Multiagent-Based Optimal Microgrid Control Using Fully Distributed Diffusion Strategy

 

Abstract—

This paper proposes a multiagent-based optimal microgrid control scheme using a fully distributed diffusion strategy. A two-level cooperative optimization multiagent system is
adapted for distributed energy resources economic dispatch. The lower level implements an adaptive droop scheme based on online no-load frequency adjustments. The upper level implements distributed communication using diffusion between neighboring agents for optimal microgrid management. The proposed control scheme enables peer-to-peer communication among the agents without the necessity of a centralized controller, and simultaneously performs resource optimization while regulating the system frequency. The results are compared with centralized and consensus-based optimization algorithms. We have concluded that the proposed algorithm is superior over consensus algorithms
in terms of convergence speed and utilizes reduced communication infrastructure compared to centralized controllers.  Simulation demonstrations were conducted along with experimental results from a hardware-based microgrid using an industrial multiagent framework. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method and the agent framework can be deployed in real-world microgrids and offer superior decision making on optimal microgrid control.

 

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Optimal droop gains assignment for real-time energy management in an islanding microgrid: a two-layer techno-economic approach

Optimal droop gains assignment for real-time energy management in an islanding microgrid: a two-layer techno-economic approach

Optimal droop gains assignment for real-time energy management in an islanding microgrid: a two-layer techno-economic approach

 

Abstract:

Real-time energy management is an important challenge in today’s microgrids. In this study, a two-layer technoeconomic energy management framework is proposed for an islanding microgrid. The minimisation of operation and emission costs are considered in the first layer procedure. Dynamic performance of dispatchable distributed energy resources is taken into account to improve the load following performance. Optimal operation of the microgrid is considered as an optimisation problem which is solved using modified particle swarm optimisation algorithm. In the second layer, optimal droop gains of microresources are assigned based on the combination of gradient descent method and minimum mean square frequency error algorithm. The proposed methodology is applied to a typical microgrid and its performance is evaluated. The simulation results
show that using the proposed methodology, the frequency deviation of microgrid is reduced properly so that the results are better than the results of conventional methodology. Moreover, the microgrid energy management and power sharing between micro-sources are more economical in comparison with conventional methods.

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Self-adaptive inertia control of DC microgrid based on fast predictive converter regulation

Self-adaptive inertia control of DC microgrid based on fast predictive converter regulation

Self-adaptive inertia control of DC microgrid based on fast predictive converter regulation

 

Abstract:

To solve the problem of low inertia in DC microgrid and enable the distributed units to provide adaptive inertia support for the system under disturbance, this study proposes a novel adaptive inertia control strategy for DC microgrid combined with fast predictive converter control. In this strategy, adaptive coordinated inertia control of wind power system, AC power grid and energy storage system of the microgrid is designed according to the characteristics of corresponding micro-sources. Therefore, inertial response of the DC microgrid under disturbance is improved through the regulation of controllable inertia coefficient of each converter. In addition, to avoid control hysteresis and adjustment error, a fast converter local control method based on model predictive approach is proposed to cooperate with the rapid inertia adjustment strategy. To verify the effectiveness of the
proposed adaptive inertia control method based on model predictive approach, contrastive simulations are conducted using the proposed control strategy and the traditional control strategy separately based on MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the proposed control method can effectively improve the transient response to disturbance of the system and guarantee the stability of DC bus voltage as well as the output power quality on AC side of grid-connected converter.

 

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DC Microgrid Technology: System Architectures, AC Grid Interfaces, Grounding Schemes, Power Quality, Communication Networks, Applications and Standardizations Aspects

DC Microgrid Technology: System Architectures, AC Grid Interfaces, Grounding Schemes, Power Quality, Communication Networks, Applications and Standardizations Aspects

DC Microgrid Technology: System Architectures, AC Grid Interfaces, Grounding Schemes, Power Quality, Communication Networks, Applications and Standardizations Aspects

 

Abstract-

To meet the fast growing energy demand and, at the same time, to tackle environmental issues resulting from conventional energy sources, renewable energy sources are
utilized in power networks to ensure reliable and affordable energy for the public and the industrial sectors. Integration of renewable energy in the outdated electrical grid can result in new risks/challenges such as security of the supply infrastructure, base load energy capacity, seasonal effects and so on. Recent research and development in microgrids has proven that microgrids which are fueled by renewable energy sources and managed by smart grid (use of smart sensors and smart energy management system) can offer higher reliability and more efficient energy systems in a cost-effective manner. Further improvement in reliability and efficiency of electrical grids can be achieved by utilizing DC distribution in microgrid systems. DC microgrid becomes an attractive technology in modern electrical grid system due to natural interface with renewable energy sources, electric loads and energy storage systems. In the recent past, an increase in research work has been observed in DC microgrid to bring this technology closer to practical implementation. This paper presents state-of-the-art DC microgrid technology covering AC interfaces, architectures, possible grounding schemes, power quality issues and communication systems. The advantages of DC grid can be utilized in many applications to improve their reliability and efficiency. This paper also discusses benefits and challenges of ,using DC grid system in several applications. The paper highlights the urgent need of standardizations for DC microgrid technology and present recent updates in this area.

 

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